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Meant to restrict your creativity as a teacher. National curriculum in England: physical education programmes of study - key stages 3 and 4 . Globally, nation states have concerns about health, and this has led to a proliferation of initiatives and policies, which either have a direct or indirect influence on education in schools. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the Beijing Sport University. Chan and Rao (2009) made the valuable point that while ‘the west’ remains an important resource for influencing educational reform, local values in China are not abandoned when adopting new western values. The challenges of educational policy borrowing, Every child (of every size) matters’ in physical education! +86 25 5210 8987, Admissions Email Associate Professor Develops Physical Education Teacher Preparation Curriculum in China. Therefore, this article provides a unique insight, the first of its kind in the English language, into how changes in the 2011 curriculum were taken up and responded to by PE teachers. Compulsory Education, China.....28 Table 8: Students’ Performance in Classroom ... Education Curriculum Scheme, involving more than 16,000 students, over 2,000teachers and principals in 9 provinces, as well as leading officers in the Education, Science-Health Committee of the National Political Consultation Council. Horrell (2016) suggested that understanding PE teachers’ responses to curriculum change requires a focus on educational policies and the school contexts in which teachers work, as these pattern and shape interpretations and actions in each school. The basic education curriculum in China has experienced several waves of changes since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. The previous syllabus is very thick. In the pursuit of enhancing overall student health, China has engaged in policy borrowing, and national physical education (PE) curriculum reform signals a desire to change longstanding epistemic principles and practices (Hayhoe and Bastid, 1987; Ji, 2019; Qi, 2006; Ryan, 2011a, 2011b; Seah, 2011; Tan and Chua, 2014). There is a clear expectation and responsibility of PE teachers to help students develop a healthy lifestyle by teaching sports knowledge, techniques and promoting students’ physical skills. Future research should consider both the prospects and pitfalls of ‘Health First’ as the guiding principle for education in China by capturing a detailed understanding of PE teachers’ interpretations of the (CEPE&H) curriculum. Table 3 presents information about the teachers’ length of service and the school context in which they worked. These statements capture the confusion all teachers in the study experienced when considering how to address health in PE. An average … Following this approach, this article provides a detailed account of the development of curriculum reforms in China which have shaped the policy context for PE and health. At the exhibition, the new direction of the reform and development in a new era of physical education curriculum was discussed in front of nearly 400 people. However, another interpretation grounded in our analysis of data indicated that the quality of the CPD provided added to Shuangdeng and other teachers’ confusion about the reform. PE (CEPE&H) should be 10–11% of the total classes each week; therefore, PE in grades 1–2 is equivalent to four classes per week. Dialogue Works and P4C China. The two extracts below provide an insight into how teachers’ responses to the CEPE&H curriculum were shaped by cultural expectations: The previous syllabus is better [He refers to the 1992 version of the curriculum]. Traditional Chinese culture attached great importance to education as a means of enhancing a person’s worth and career. Pupils should be taught to: 1. master basic movements including running… In terms of objectives, some teachers argued that emphasising health-related education was diluting the importance of sports techniques and physical fitness (Ji, 2019). An example code generated by this labelling process is ‘aa133 some type of exercises are forbidden by PE teachers due to accidents that have occurred in class’. The course names for the primary and secondary stages were unified and became Compulsory Education Physical Education and Health Curriculum (CEPE&H) (MoE, 2011a). It aims to develop students’ physical competence and knowledge of movement and safety, and their ability to use these to perform in a wide range of activities associated with the development of an active and healthy lifestyle. Physical Education - Curriculum and Assessment Guide ( Secondary 4-6 ) (2007) (with updates in November 2015) PDF. Tan (2015) presented the view that for a subject, ‘knowledge points’ are essential for learning and these are further divided into foundational points (jichudian), core points (hexindian) and difficult points (nandina). Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Globally, nation states have concerns about health, and this has led to a proliferation of initiatives and policies, which either have a direct or indirect influence on education in schools. ... China, India, and Indonesia. Students only study the subjects and contents of the examination. As a result of ‘three-level’ curriculum management, different regions can add in additional objectives and adopt student-centred teaching methods to suit their local contexts but not diverge from the core principles or four objectives. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. The many ways in which the PE teachers responded to the introduction of the (CEPE&H) curriculum were revealed via these processes of analysis. These criteria guided the processes used during participant selection so that the study included teachers who could provide insights about curriculum reform in PE. Xiang indicated why these expectations present her and other teachers in the study with a challenge: ‘PE teachers need authority, if the teacher loses the centre position, I do not know how to organise the class’. School representatives attend district training, and district representatives attend state training. Xueli was expressing her view that in the same way that an orchestra is directed by a conductor interpreting the notes on a musical score, teachers’ practice is directed by the requirements of the examination system. PISA is a triennial … ORCID iDAndrew Horrell https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4497-3336. Media reports say the new curriculum has provisions for more physical education classes in primary schools. (Yanfen). The Admissions Team is here to help. Study Physical Education in China Apply to China Universities Now. But as a mother, I know how important [the] examination is for his future, I have to ban him from playing basketball, and let him concentrate on his examination subjects. This is a big conflict. The new (CEPE&H) curriculum shifted from providing knowledge points to only providing broad principles and objectives that students need to achieve. The final sample of participants included 22 PE teachers (eight female, 14 male) from 13 of the 137 secondary schools in Nuanyan city (a pseudonym) in the north of mainland China. Much of China’s educational system was built around examination preparation. As Harris (2009) summarises, PE teachers’ interpretations of health-related PE are generally narrow and focused mainly on ‘exercise effects’, with minimal attention to ‘health benefits’, therefore reducing the likelihood of teaching health-enhancing PE through activities. Prior to the release of this document, the priorities of PE were closely aligned with those of the former Soviet Union. classes and two junior high school P.E. (Xiangding), The PEPE is the only way to improve students’ health under the current educational system. In response to the question, ‘What is your experience of teaching health-related PE in the new curriculum?’, the majority of PE teachers believed that the curriculum reforms had moderate but not radical changes. These changes usually followed major political and social movements and involved the development and implementation of new curriculum guidelines in the form of teaching syllabi or curriculum standards for all school … As a PE teacher, I think playing basketball is good. Therefore, all schools and teachers should provide learning opportunities which address the core principles and the four objectives (MoE, 2011b). (Wenbo). In the process of China’s top-down curriculum design, there are a number of ideas travelling from the ‘west’, such as school decentralisation, school autonomy, student-centred teaching and health-related PE (Tan, 2015). 215-226). Table 1 has been created to summarise the core principles and the objectives of the 2011 CEPE&H curriculum (MoE, 2011a). These statements provide strong evidence that there was a desire across the sample of teachers to seek support and to learn from others via the established means of providing CPD for teachers. As a result of the prevailing examination-driven culture, although the curriculum reform has introduced learner-centred pedagogies and encouraged formative assessment, the reality is that success in the high-stakes examination is still considered to be the most desirable outcome of educational experiences. Background: Among the many changes occurring across Chinese society in the early years of the 21st century has been the construction and implementation of a new national curriculum which includes physical education (PE) as one of the main subject areas. A comparison of ideas about body, health and physical activity in materials produced for health education in the Danish Primary School, Education policy borrowing and cultural scripts for teaching in China, Tensions and challenges in China’s education policy borrowing. The essential rationale for In the past, PE classes only emphasised physical fitness, so I just need to let children run and play in the class. Background: Among the many changes occurring across Chinese society in the early years of the 21st century has been the construction and implementation of a new national curriculum which includes physical education (PE) as one of the main subject areas. The Physical Education graduate must demonstrate values such as respect, appreciation of diversity of … As mentioned above, PE has become part of the high school entrance examination, and this has had an impact on the teachers’ perceptions of the importance of the PEPE. Physical education’s role in childhood obesity, Monitoring health, activity and fitness in physical education: Its current and future state of health, Springer and Comparative Education Research Centre, Critical health education in Aotearoa New Zealand, UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, Health-related exercise and physical education, Changes and confusion in physical education and health curriculum, ‘There is new wording, but there is no real change in what we deliver’: Implementing the new national curriculum for physical education in England, ‘I think it’s a good idea, I just don’t know how to do it’: The struggle for PE reform in China, The reform dilemma and development of school PE in China under the strategy of ‘Healthy China’, Curriculum reform in contemporary China: Seven goals and six strategies, Clarification and analysis of some controversies in the PE curriculum reform in China in the past 20 years, Physical education curriculum reform in China: A perspective from physical education teachers, Health literacy in schools: Prioritising health and well-being issues through the curriculum, Understanding China’s curriculum reform for the 21st century, Cultivation of new-style physical education teachers under the background of the ‘Health in China’ strategy, Study on Maozedong health thought and its realistic significance, Curriculum reform in China: Challenges and reflections, Top-down and bottom-up approaches to implementation research: A critical analysis and suggested synthesis, Ten years of curriculum reform in China: A soft knowledge perspective, University students’ conceptions of an excellent physical education teacher in China, Writing processes of Spanish scientists publishing in English, Get moving! In D. Cothran and X. Keating (Eds. There aren’t many subjects in school that give you the knowledge to live longer, happier and healthier lives. school and the other an average Chinese school – these principles behind Physical Education worked in very similar ways. The high-speed connection between it and the China Education Broadband Satellite Net opened in 2000, established a "space to earth" transmission platform for modern distance education, and … Children start schools at age six (seven in some areas). Despite the differences between the two schools – one of which could be called an elite school and the other an average Chinese school – these principles behind Physical Education … Traditional Chinese culture attached great importance to education as a means of enhancing a person’s worth and career. Chinese early education curriculum The government approved early education curriculum is language, math, art, music, physical education and general knowledge based (Spodek, 1988). My son is [in] the 2nd year…and he will be facing a high school entrance examination next year. The first stage, which took place between 2001 and 2011, began with the MoE issuing Compulsory Education and High School Education Physical Education Curriculum Standards (Grade 1–6) & Physical Education and Health Curriculum Standards (Grade 7–12) (Pilot Draft) (MoE, 2001b). School is mandatory for nine years, six of primary and three of junior secondary, but many students continue on to complete the following three to four years of senior secondary. ), Learning for a lifetime: Effective Secondary Physical Education Programs. China - China - Education: The educational system in China is a major vehicle for both inculcating values in and teaching needed skills to its people. In this study, Tan’s (2016) analysis is helpful, because ‘formalism’ reflected teachers’ concerns to address ‘health’ as a form of physical activity but not the substance of health education through dialogic learning. The PEPE comprises three items, reflecting the value of an individual’s endurance and explosive power, with scope for choice in one additional item. Chinese Curriculum . To support students’ learning, teachers were expected to be creative, they needed to develop a curriculum and adopt teaching approaches which aligned with these new aspirations. However, health in that period equated to ensuring the physical fitness of students for purposes of national defence. It is one of ten “Core Domains of Education.” It can be considered a combination of health education, sport, and physical education. s physical education curriculum and teaching reform in China Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Education policy borrowing in China: Has the West wind overpowered the East wind? The second stage of China’s curriculum reform (2011–present) refined the curriculum and led to its gradual implementation nationally (Huang, 2004; Ji, 2019). I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. Now Physical Educationhas been changed into Physical Education and Health, which is seen as a very important part of the reform. The following interview questions were designed to facilitate discussions about PE and health: How do you understand the health-related elements in the new (CEPE&H) curriculum? The (CEPE&H) curriculum requires us to be a creative research-type PE teacher, but no one gives us any help. These findings have similarities with the broader points made by Fullan (2007) about the uncertain nature of the change process and that policymakers often present confusing messages for teachers. Physical Education is "education through the physical". Typically, the PEPE accounts for about 7% of the total score for high school entrance; however, in some provinces, its contribution is higher and in some – for example, Yunnan province – equally weighted with other subjects (Yunnan Local Education Authority, 2019). Teachers expressed concerns about the reforms and there were several further contextual factors limiting the realisation of curriculum reform guided by the maxim of ‘Health First’. In the early 1950s the Chinese communists worked hard to increase the country’s rate of literacy, an effort that … The labelling of independent events was done word-by-word, sentence-by-sentence and finally paragraph-by-paragraph (‘aaXXX + event’). If PE does not have an examination, many students will choose to take time off in the PE class; they will stay in the classroom to self-study. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. The comment from Xueli reflected the widespread view from teachers that they would prioritise the PEPE over the (CEPE&H) curriculum. Students learn how to plan, perform and evaluate actions, ideas, and to improve their quality and effectiveness. The next section will outline the complexities and possibilities of implementing the (CEPE&H) curriculum within an examination-oriented educational context in China. 1.In 2001, as part of the piloting phase of curriculum reforms, the MoE published the Experimental Curriculum Plan of Compulsory Education. Sharing links are not available for this article. Although the curriculum of basic education in China has experi-enced several waves of change since the founding of the People’s Repub-lic of China in 1949, the past changes have never been as profound as this recent one (Zhong, Cui, & Zhang, 2001, p. 3). China to boost physical education in schools ... By 2020, schools’ physical education conditions should reach national levels, and students’ sports lessons and exercise time can be fully guaranteed, it said. Login failed. The aim was to determine not only the words and terms in each interview transcript but also to clarify whether the original meanings were faithfully coded, categorised and interpreted. To improve students’ health, physical fitness as well as agility through promoting an active and positive lifestyle To help our students’ to develop righteous… For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. A typical school year is comprised of two semesters and runs from the month of September to July. As indicated, the focus of PETE and the nature of CPD teachers could engage in resulted in teachers’ confusion about health as conceptualised in the new (CEPE&H) curriculum: To be honest, I do not really understand the concept of health in PE. All interview data were transcribed and entered into NVivo 12 Pro for the initial processes of open coding. Hickey and Jin, 2010; Jin, 2013), to date none have considered the launch of a subsequent phase of curriculum reform in 2011, which requires further analysis. China Physical Education wholesale - Select 2020 high quality Physical Education products in best price from certified Chinese RFID manufacturers, Printing Card suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China… The national curriculum for physical education aims to ensure that all pupils: develop competence to excel in a broad range of physical activities are physically active for sustained periods of time engage in competitive sports and activities lead healthy, active lives. It encompasses moral education, Chinese language and literature, mathematics, art and music, and physical education. But now, the curriculum emphasises health. We believe that every student has the ability to achieve and can find an activity which they enjoy. The aim is to provide a unique insight into how changes in curriculum were taken up and responded to by PE teachers. ... Are you looking for a long term teaching career in China? Despite these inherent problems, all the PE teachers believed that they had no choice but to adopt a strategy which maximised students’ potential to achieve success in the PEPE. In many countries, policies are designed from the top down, which involves complex decision-making at government level, but teachers are expected to implement policy straightforwardly (Apple, 2011; Kelly, 2009; Sabatier, 1986). Wang Dengfeng, director of the Ministry of Physical Education, Health and Art, claimed that ‘Under our current education system, in which students get enrolled through exams and are assessed by all kinds of scores, involving PE more in exams is the effective way to have students exercise more’ (State Council of the Chinese Central Government, 2016). It is a waste of time to study anything that is not on the examination. National PE curriculum reform followed two sequential stages. A key question in education policy borrowing is the relevance and applicability of foreign policies and practices, in particular, those from ‘the west’ for the Chinese context. In the context of Chinese education, the newly arrived ‘exotic’ ideas about health education interact with longstanding examination-oriented educational traditions. Health has gained increasing significance within Chinese society as evidenced by various government policies, strategies and responses which have highlighted schools to be instrumental in addressing students’ health. This article focuses specifically on how China, with the largest public education system in the world, has sought to transform the health of the nation through national curriculum reform informed by policies from other nations, which has significant implications for physical education (PE). Other options within this field of study: The initial coding phase involved: microanalysis of the transcribed data to break down the text into independent events and labelling them. Presented with a significant educational reform, these teachers were not fully prepared via their PETE nor ongoing professional development to effect the necessary structural changes to incorporate reformed policies in the subject and achieve a transformation to embrace a holistic approach to health education through PE. I do not know how to respect students’ sports preferences. You know, children only do what they want to do. LAI TIAN DE (ISBN: 9787811004908) from Amazon's Book Store. In the initial recruitment phase, after discussions with the first author, six PE teachers from six secondary schools volunteered and agreed to take part in the study. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. 3.In the schools included in the study, classes had approximately 50–60 students. However, data from the national students’ health surveys indicate curriculum reform has not achieved the reductions in ill-health the Chinese government had sought. Students attend classes five days a week and primary school education currently includes nine compulsory cour… We also wish to thank the participants who agreed to take part in this study. In grades 3–6 and 7–9, (CEPE&H) is equivalent to three classes per week. View or download all the content the society has access to. Physical Education - Curriculum Documents. Analysis of data from this study indicated that the demands of implementing the new curriculum have their origins in complexities that go beyond individual teachers’ perceptions of health and change. To improve the … (Pei), Sometimes I have to act like a ‘tiger’ to keep the order of the class. At the same time, every school should hold regular teaching seminars and workshops. The trend of declining students’ health has compelled China to adopt ‘Health First’ as a guiding principle for the curriculum, therefore prominently positioning the (CEPE&H) curriculum in the process of these reforms (CPC and State Council, 1999). In China, primary school education is compulsory and it lasts 6 years. China Great progress in the field of early childhood education policy in China has been made in 2010. Concordia University Wisconsin will launch this fall a joint undergraduate degree program with Shanghai Normal University Tianhua College in Shanghai, China, the first of its kind to be approved by the Chinese Ministry of Education, university officials announced today. [The emphasis was on] my ability to perform sports techniques, [this] means great teaching demonstration, to some extent, it means you have good teaching ability. Teachers in the study were aware that they may not be addressing the expectations of the ‘Health First’ maxim of the curriculum reform; however, the introduction of the PEPE and the regimes of accountability which were associated with that shaped teachers’ decision-making. The duration of classes in grades 1–6 is normally 40 minutes, and the length of classes in grades 7–9 is normally 45–50 minutes. Thus, our discussion presents theoretical ideas grounded in our analysis of PE teachers’ experiences of the reform process. All the PE teachers stated that they did not receive adequate or effective support from their school and local education authority. The 2001 document claimed that the current education system was ‘unable to fully adapt to the developmental needs of the times’ and thus underpinned the rationale of the reforms with the intention that China could ‘meet the demands of quality-oriented education’ (Ministry of Education (MoE), 2001a: np). As He (2012: 82) indicated, there was no explicit rationale for adopting ‘one curriculum, two names’ for PE but it highlights that in the period of curriculum reform, there were ongoing debates about terminology and the positioning of health in PE. An international school with a local feel, We provide a high quality international education in the historically-rich city of Nanjing, Students inspire and flourish at our school, becoming the best versions of themselves, Our professional community of teachers and staff shape our achievements, We offer an enriched English national curriculum with a global outlook, Stay connected with us and find out what’s going on inside our school, Get in touch with our Admissions department today, Find our more about The British School of Nanjing. Therefore, to address the growing concerns about student health, all ages and stages of education in China would need to reflect this aspiration. The comment from Xiangding, ‘Schools, students and parents are actually very realistic’, means many teachers, students and parents are accustomed to the assessment system associated with high school entrance examinations, with precise scores considered to be the objective way to represent achievement (Huang, 2004). PE teachers had many pragmatic considerations to contend with, such as large class sizes and students’ safety. Teachers’ perceptions of competence were grounded in their ability to use the knowledge they had acquired during PETE and CPD to teach sports techniques. Implementing both the [PEPE] and the (CEPE&H) curriculum are sometimes difficult to achieve. (Shuangdeng). PE teachers need authority; if the teacher loses the centre position, I do not know how to organise the class. Physical Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-Secondary 6) - (2017) Due to the rather large population of China, their education system is the largest one in the whole world. Therefore, the findings of this study provide an insight into why the (CEPE&H) curriculum has not been welcomed by PE teachers (Huang et al., 2018). An important development during this period of curriculum reform which requires close attention was the introduction of the PE Physical Examination (PEPE), and the next section details its importance as a strategy to improve the status of PE and realise the goals of the (CEPE&H) curriculum. As the first author had conducted the interviews, transcription and coding processes in Chinese, it was necessary to translate these into English for further coding and analysis. Table 2 was created to show the physical tests in the PEPE and the corresponding standardised performance required to attain maximum scores (Nuanyan Local Education Authority, 2019). PETE in China is based on sports science knowledge with an emphasis on sports physiology, sports psychology and sports rehabilitation. Beijing, Higher Education Press. The PAFCTYS employed a cross-sectional, multistage sampling design to survey PA and assess physical fitness of children and adolescents in primary, junior middle, and junior high schools from the school education system in China. Ready to find out more? They should be able to engage in competitive (both against self and against others) and co-operative physical activities, in a range of increasingly challenging situations. St John (1987) found that the main concern of non-English writers is the precise expression of their thoughts in the second language. The society has access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below cultural scripts China... Elimination of repetitive or inconsistent codes my time on practising techniques the 2001 PE curriculum reforms, implemented nationwide 2005! And he was unsure of what to teach of helplessness, and hygiene management policy overall! 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